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effect noun

1 change that is caused by sth

ADJ. decisive, dramatic, far-reaching, important, marked, powerful, profound, significant, strong | marginal, minimal, modest, negligible | chief, main, major, principal | full The full effects of the new tax have not yet been felt. | apparent, appreciable, detectable, discernible, measurable, noticeable, visible | likely, possible, potential, predictable, probable | subtle | disproportionate | residual | adverse, catastrophic, crippling, damaging, debilitating, deleterious, destructive, detrimental, devastating, disastrous, harmful, ill, negative, serious, traumatic, undesirable, unfortunate the crippling effect of sanctions on the economy He didn't seem to have suffered any ill effects from his fall. | beneficial, positive, salutary | the desired We had problems with mosquitoes, but this spray had the desired effect. | magical, remarkable Giving up smoking had a magical effect on his stamina. | immediate | direct, indirect | short-term | lasting, long-term, permanent | domino, knock-on, ripple, spin-off Any delay in delivery of materials will have a knock-on effect throughout the production process. (see also side effect) | practical | aggregate, combined, cumulative, net, overall | qualitative, quantitative | cohesive | divisive | deterrent, disincentive The deterrent effect of the death penalty has long been questioned. Heavy taxation has a disincentive effect. | calming, hypnotic, soothing, soporific | curative, restorative, therapeutic | placebo | inflationary | corrosive | greenhouse policies to reduce emissions of gases which cause the greenhouse effect

VERB + EFFECT bring about, exert, have, produce The drug exerts a powerful effect on the brain. | take The medicine started to take effect after a few minutes. | feel, experience, suffer (from) Women feel the effects of alcohol more quickly than men. | recover from | observe | show | assess, determine, estimate, examine, measure, study | ameliorate, cushion, lessen, minimize, mitigate, reduce, soften to minimize the effects of economic change | cancel out | counter, counteract, offset | compound, magnify, maximize | avoid | aim at That is precisely the effect I was aiming at. | be worried about, fear | underestimate | ignore

EFFECT + VERB spread | last | wear off How soon will the effects of the drug wear off?

PREP. in ~ The border closure meant, in effect, that no trade took place between the countries. | to this/that ~ They told us to go away, or words to that effect. | with … ~ The plague struck London again with devastating effect. | ~ on/upon The dry weather had an adverse effect on the potato crops.

PHRASES cause and effect key historical concepts such as cause and effect | to little/no effect The air-conditioning came on, to little effect.

2 use of an official rule/plan, etc.

ADJ. immediate

VERB + EFFECT come into The new regulations come into effect next month. | bring sth into, put sth into The recommendations will soon be put into effect.

PREP. in ~ Some laws from the eighteenth century are still in effect. | with ~ The bank has cut interest rates with immediate effect.

3 impression that a speaker/book/film, etc. gives

ADJ. dramatic, startling, striking, stunning | maximum, optimum | the desired I found that by adding white I could achieve the desired effect. | overall The overall effect of the painting is overwhelming.

VERB + EFFECT give (sth), have The stage lighting gives the effect of a moonlit scene. | achieve, create | enhance, heighten The dramatic effect was heightened by her black dress and dead white face. | mar, spoil

PREP. for … ~ ‘You know why I'm here?’ Doug paused for maximum effect. | to … ~ She uses animal sounds to startling effect in her music.

4 techniques used when making sth

ADJ. special | cinematic | audio, sound | optical, visual | lighting | elaborate | digital